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How to Replace Inner Tie Rod

How to Replace Inner Tie Rod The inner tie rods don't wear easily, but swapping one out that is busted can be easily done at home.Tie rods are the rods that turn the wheels of a car. They're typically split into two parts. The outer tie rod is the half that connects directly to the steering knuckle, or hub, where the wheel is attached. It is connected to the inner tie rod, which connects directly to the steering rack. The inner tie rod has a ball joint that allows the entire tie rod to pivot up and down and left and right. Like any joint, it can get worn out after many miles, causing the steering to bind or feel unresponsive. If the rubber boot protecting the joint is torn or otherwise damaged, it's likely that the ball joint inside is bad, too. Luckily, replacing the inner tie rod isn't terribly difficult. Old ones can be stubborn due to corrosion, but the actual process is relatively uncomplicated. Step 1 – Lift front endBefore anything, life the front end of the Civic and secure it with jack stands. You'll need to remove the wheel to access the tie rods. Step 2 – Disconnect the outer tie rodBegin by removing the outer tie rod end. You can identify the tie rod as the bar attached to the wheel hub and steering rack at the center of the car. If you turn the steering wheel, the tie rod will push or pull the hub in the direction you're steering. The outer tie rod is secured to the wheel hub by a flexible rubber joint secured by a castle nut and cotter pin. Use pliers to remove the cotter pin first. Then, use a 17mm socket to remove the castle nut. After the nut has been removed, separate the tie rod end from the wheel hub. You can do this by using either a pickle fork or ball joint separator to pry the two apart. Otherwise, try whacking the side of the steering knuckle where the tie rod is connected with a hammer. The shock should cause the tie rod end to pop out. DO NOT hit the tie rod end (or anything else, frankly) with a hammer. The final step is to twist off the outer tie rod. Before doing this, be sure to measure the amount of thread that's exposed where the outer tie rod meets the inner tie rod. This is important. Later, you'll need to re-install the tie rod end to this distance. Step 3 – Remove inner tie rod bootThe inner tie rod is protected by a rubber boot that keeps dirt from contaminating the ball joint inside. Use pliers to pull off the outer clip on the side closest to you. Another band clamp secures the boot at the end closest to the steering rack. Cut this and pull it off and replace it with a screw clamp or another pinch clamp when re-installing. Remove the nut on the threads of the outer tie rod end and pull off the boot. Step 4 – Remove the inner tie rodThere are a few ways to remove the inner tie rod. You can use an inner tie rod tool, which can be rented from your local auto parts store. This is a special wrench that slides over the inner tie rod end and torques the ball joint. This is generally thought of as the easiest way. Slide the tool over the ball joint, connect it to a wrench with a 1/2" adapter, and twist it counter-clockwise. Alternatively, use a crescent wrench to remove the ball joint while using another wrench to prevent the steering rack from turning. Once loosened, continue turning to remove the tie rod end. The lock washer between the steering rack and the ball joint should fall out. Step 5 – Install new tie rodFit the new lock washer to the end of the new inner tie rod that faces the steering rack. The tabs on the lock nut should be pointing towards the center of the car as you go to install the new inner tie rod. Make sure those tabs line up with the gaps on the steering rack. Tighten the tie rod end to 40 lb/ft. Liberally apply grease to the ball joint housing, taking care to keep it off the threads for the outer ball joint. Finally, slip the boot back on over the inner tie rod. Secure the side closest to the steering rack with a CV clamp or screw clamp. Re-install the tie rod clip with pliers. Re-install the nut to the base of the tie-rod end threads. Lastly, re-install the outer tie rod end. Screw it on so that the same amount of thread you measured earlier is exposed before reattaching it to the steering knuckle.

How to Replace Inner Tie Rod

How to Replace Inner Tie Rod The inner tie rods don't wear easily, but swapping one out that is busted can be easily done at home.Tie rods are the rods that turn the wheels of a car. They're typically split into two parts. The outer tie rod is the half that connects directly to the steering knuckle, or hub, where the wheel is attached. It is connected to the inner tie rod, which connects directly to the steering rack. The inner tie rod has a ball joint that allows the entire tie rod to pivot up and down and left and right. Like any joint, it can get worn out after many miles, causing the steering to bind or feel unresponsive. If the rubber boot protecting the joint is torn or otherwise damaged, it's likely that the ball joint inside is bad, too. Luckily, replacing the inner tie rod isn't terribly difficult. Old ones can be stubborn due to corrosion, but the actual process is relatively uncomplicated. Step 1 – Lift front endBefore anything, life the front end of the Civic and secure it with jack stands. You'll need to remove the wheel to access the tie rods. Step 2 – Disconnect the outer tie rodBegin by removing the outer tie rod end. You can identify the tie rod as the bar attached to the wheel hub and steering rack at the center of the car. If you turn the steering wheel, the tie rod will push or pull the hub in the direction you're steering. The outer tie rod is secured to the wheel hub by a flexible rubber joint secured by a castle nut and cotter pin. Use pliers to remove the cotter pin first. Then, use a 17mm socket to remove the castle nut. After the nut has been removed, separate the tie rod end from the wheel hub. You can do this by using either a pickle fork or ball joint separator to pry the two apart. Otherwise, try whacking the side of the steering knuckle where the tie rod is connected with a hammer. The shock should cause the tie rod end to pop out. DO NOT hit the tie rod end (or anything else, frankly) with a hammer. The final step is to twist off the outer tie rod. Before doing this, be sure to measure the amount of thread that's exposed where the outer tie rod meets the inner tie rod. This is important. Later, you'll need to re-install the tie rod end to this distance. Step 3 – Remove inner tie rod bootThe inner tie rod is protected by a rubber boot that keeps dirt from contaminating the ball joint inside. Use pliers to pull off the outer clip on the side closest to you. Another band clamp secures the boot at the end closest to the steering rack. Cut this and pull it off and replace it with a screw clamp or another pinch clamp when re-installing. Remove the nut on the threads of the outer tie rod end and pull off the boot. Step 4 – Remove the inner tie rodThere are a few ways to remove the inner tie rod. You can use an inner tie rod tool, which can be rented from your local auto parts store. This is a special wrench that slides over the inner tie rod end and torques the ball joint. This is generally thought of as the easiest way. Slide the tool over the ball joint, connect it to a wrench with a 1/2" adapter, and twist it counter-clockwise. Alternatively, use a crescent wrench to remove the ball joint while using another wrench to prevent the steering rack from turning. Once loosened, continue turning to remove the tie rod end. The lock washer between the steering rack and the ball joint should fall out. Step 5 – Install new tie rodFit the new lock washer to the end of the new inner tie rod that faces the steering rack. The tabs on the lock nut should be pointing towards the center of the car as you go to install the new inner tie rod. Make sure those tabs line up with the gaps on the steering rack. Tighten the tie rod end to 40 lb/ft. Liberally apply grease to the ball joint housing, taking care to keep it off the threads for the outer ball joint. Finally, slip the boot back on over the inner tie rod. Secure the side closest to the steering rack with a CV clamp or screw clamp. Re-install the tie rod clip with pliers. Re-install the nut to the base of the tie-rod end threads. Lastly, re-install the outer tie rod end. Screw it on so that the same amount of thread you measured earlier is exposed before reattaching it to the steering knuckle.

Casting vs. Forging - What's the Difference?

Casting vs. Forging - What's the Difference? Casting and forging are two different methods of metal fabrication. Both processes have been around for thousands of years, but what are the differences between the two metalworking methods? What is Casting?Casting is the process of pouring molten metal into a mold or die and allowing it to cool and harden so that it takes the shape of the mold. The process is ideal for mass-production of parts with the reuse of the same mold to create identical products. There are several different types of casting. Die-casting is when liquid metal is forced into a die instead of a mold, and there the applied pressure keeps it in place until it hardens. This process is known for the high-speed applications it supports. Permanent mold casting involves pouring the molten metal into a metal mold, using gravity or a vacuum to fill the mold. Permanent mold casting can create stronger castings than die casting, but they can be difficult to remove from the final product. For this reason, semi-permanent mold castings are also available. These molds have expendable cores, making them more manageable and less costly to remove. The final casting process is sand casting. With sand casting, castings are made by pressing a pattern into a fine mixture of sand. This forms a mold for the molten metal to be poured into. This process is slow but is generally more economical than the other forms of casting. It is also good to use when intricate designs are needed, or for large metal fabrication. What is Forging?Forging uses compressive force to shape metal. A hammer or die strikes the metal workpiece until the desired shape is formed. The pounding action of forging deforms and shapes the metal, which results in unbroken grain flow, which allows the metal to retain its strength. Ancillary effects of this unique grain flow include the elimination of defects, inclusions, and porosity in the product. Another advantage of forging is the relatively low costs associated with moderate and long production runs. Once the forging tools have been created, products can be manufactured at relatively high speeds with minimal downtime. If forging is done with the metal at room temperature, it is called cold forging. Forging can also be performed with the metal heated to a range of above room temperature to below the recrystallization temperature and is then called warm forging. When the metal is heated to its recrystallization temperature, which varies by metal, the process is called hot forging. Forging is one of the oldest types of fabrication, with blacksmiths using forging centuries ago. What’s the Difference Between Casting and Forging?Forging creates metal products with generally higher strength that are typically tougher than metal processed in castings. Metal forgings are less likely to shatter at contact with other objects. The increased strength is a consequence of how the metal is forced into a new shape, by pressing or by hammering, during forging. As opposed to other methods of fabrication, the metal’s grain is stretched in this process, aligning in one direction instead of randomly. By the end of the forging process, the resulting metal is stronger than it would have been had it been cast. However, forging has size limitations. Shaping metal is more difficult with forging since the process keeps the metal in a solid-state, unlike casting. Since altering the metal’s shape is more difficult with forging, there’s a limit on the size and the thickness of metal for forging. The larger the metal section being worked on, the harder it is to forge. With casting, molten metal flows into a cavity in a mold or die, which allows for more complex shapes to be easily produced. Practically any material can be cast, and products up to 200 tons can be created. Casting is often much cheaper than forging. Both casting and forging have their advantages and disadvantages, so the better method depends upon what is being fabricated.

What are the different types of nut splitter ?

What are the different types of nut splitter ? Nut splitters can have either a screw action or hydraulic action, with a ring-frame or C-frame design. Ring frame nut splitterAs the name suggests the frame of a ring-frame nut splitter forms a ring that completely encircles the nut you wish to remove.This type of nut splitter will often lack a flat anvil opposite the chisel, instead using the inside of the ring-frame to pinch the far side of the nut as the chisel is driven into the nut’s flat.As the ring frame fully encircles the nut it is stronger than a C-frame nut splitter. However, this also makes the frame larger and can sometimes prevent the nut splitter from fitting nuts in confined spaces. C-frame nut splitterThe C-frame nut splitter looks similar to a G-clamp. As one end of the frame is open and it does not fully encircle the nut it is possible to get a C-frame nut splitter into more confined spaces than a ring-frame one.This nut splitter design usually comes with a rotating chisel that allows you to use it at various angles, which again enables it to access nuts you may not be able to with a ring-frame nut splitter.The rotating chisel is first adjusted with a hex key so that there will be a minimal gap between it the nut and the anvil. Then keeping the chisel square to the nut’s flat the C-frame nut splitter is positioned over the nut, before the screw at the end of handle is turned to press the anvil up against the opposite flat of the nut. This is continued until the chisel splits the nut.However, as the C-frame doesn’t completely encircle the nut it is not as strong as a ring-frame nut splitter. To combat this weaker design, the C-frame is made of thicker material than the ring frames of other nut splitters. C-frame nut splitter with hydraulic screw actionThese are the same as C-frame nut splitters except that instead of the screw acting directly on the chisel, it acts on a hydraulic ram in the handle which then moves the chisel.Due to their greater internal complexity and therefore increased production costs, C-frame nut splitters with a hydraulic screw action cost more than a nut splitters with a direct screw action. Why do some nut splitters use a hydraulic screw action?The hydraulic screw action provide two advantages. Firstly, unlike a regular screw action that acts directly on the chisel, the screw of a nut splitter with a hydraulic screw action does not have to be aligned with the chisel.This is because the hydraulic fluid in the ram can transmit the force from the screw around corners or at an angle to the second ram which then pushes the chisel. This means the handle of these nut splitters can be angled relative to their frame, allowing you to use them in spaces and situations where a normal screw action nut splitter would not fit.The second advantage of a hydraulic screw action is that it provides a mechanical advantage, multiplying the original force applied to the screw. Hydraulic nut splitterHydraulic nut splitters use a hydraulic ram instead of a screw to drive the chisel into the nut’s flat. This enables them to apply far more force to the chisel than can be achieved with a screw.The greater force applied to the chisel along with harder chisel materials allows hydraulic nut splitters to remove larger and harder nuts than is possible with a  screw nut splitter. This type of nut splitter is only found with a ring frame design in order to cope with the force exerted by the ram .Hydraulic nut splitters are powered by a separate hydraulic pump. This pump can itself be powered by hand, electricity, pneumatically (compressed air) or petrol.Hydraulic nut splitters cost considerably more than a screw action or C-frame with hydraulic screw action nut splitter. This means they are rarely used outside of heavy industry and very specialist applications.

What Is a Pneumatic Valve?

What Is a Pneumatic Valve? From vehicles to industrial tools, there are many products that use pneumatic systems. This means the system takes compressed air and uses it to control energy as it moves through the system. However, without pneumatic valves, these products don't work the way they're supposed to. Learn more about these valves. What Does a Pneumatic Valve Do?Pneumatic valves serve three main purposes. They control "force, velocity and direction of movement" of air, according to Pneumatic Tips. Some products may have what's known as a relief valve. It's in place to prevent too much pressurization by releasing some of the built-up air. Some may have flow-control valves, which control the rate of the airflow in and out, depending on the product's needs. Directional control valves come in a variety of sizes and types and can send the air in one or many directions. Two-, Three- and Four-Way Directional ValvesOf the types of valves, directional control valves come with the most variety. This is based on the number of ports where air can enter and leave the systems, the types of mechanisms they use and how many airflow paths they create. Two-way valves are fairly basic and easy to understand. They allow air to flow in or out in one or both directions unless they're closed. There-way valves are a bit more complicated, as each of the three ports connects to something different. Typically, they go to the airflow, the exhaust and an actuator, according to Thomas Insights. A four-way valve is similar to a three-way directional valve, except it has two ports that connect to an actuator or other device. Advantages of Pneumatic SystemsThanks to pneumatic valves, these types of systems have many advantages. Because they don't use fuel or other resources you must purchase, they're relatively inexpensive to operate. They're also safe. If there's ever a leak, it's not hazardous to your health or the environment. Products that use pneumatic systems also require little maintenance because only air can get inside them, so there's no need to worry about dirt and debris. Disadvantages of Pneumatic SystemsPneumatic systems also have their disadvantages. They're harder to control than systems that use electricity or water, and they can be very loud to operate. If they get wet or water somehow gets into the system, it can destroy the entire product. Extreme temperatures and vibrations from other equipment can also impact the system's ability to work.

How to Check an Oil Pressure Switch

How to Check an Oil Pressure Switch Knowing how to do an electrical repair like replacing a pressure switch Square D can save you time, money and hassle. Follow our guide for how to check an oil pressure switch. Square D Pressure Switch OverviewA Square D pressure switch is the common way to control pressure in a water pump or air compressor. An air compressor operates at higher pressure, while a water pump pressure switch operates at a lower pressure. However, the wiring of the Square D pressure is generally the same. A Square D pressure switch controls the pump, and the oil pressure switch location is most likely on the outside of the pressure tank. When to Replace Your Square D Pressure SwitchA Square D pressure switch can become worn out over time and lead to issues with your pump. You can test your pressure switch by tapping gently and listening for a click. If you want to remove and replace the Square D pressure switch, you'll need to check the pressure range of the old switch. The ranges are 20 to 40, 30 to 50 or 40 to 60 pounds per square inch (PSI), and you can find the information by pulling off the cover. Make sure to replace your pressure switch with another one of the same pressure. You may also see information about whether the switch can work for water systems or air compressors and details about the amperage rating. The amperage rating of your new switch should be higher than the value of your motor's amperage capacity. Installing Your Square D Pressure SwitchMake sure the pump is switched off before disconnecting the old wiring and getting started on installing a new Square D pressure switch. Shut the pressure tank's valve, then drain the pressure tank safely. Next, remove the old pressure switch. You will see two sets of wires: one set from the pump motor and one set from the power source. The new wiring will likely be very similar, so make a note of how they connect to the old pressure switch. A new Square D pressure switch will come with installation instruction. Read these instructions fully to get the most customized information before your installation attempt. Safety FirstWhen working with electricity, safety is of the utmost importance. Always double check that your power is off, wear the correct safety equipment and make sure someone is nearby in case of an emergency.

How Does a Transmission Work?

How Does a Transmission Work? When you get behind the wheel of your car or truck and put it in gear, you expect it to move. Take a closer look at vehicle parts diagrams, and you see that the transmission plays a role in making this happen. It's a complex part with an important job. Transmission BasicsYour car or truck's transmission is part of its drive train. It's purpose is to transfer power produced by the engine to the wheels. If you've ever been on a multi-speed bicycle and changed the gears, you know that putting it in the wrong gear for the speed you want to go makes it difficult to move. This is also true of a transmission. Parts of a TransmissionTake a look at a transmission parts diagram and you see how complex this part is. There are clutches and bands, gears, a pump, sensors, a torque converter and valve body. All transmissions also have transmission fluid that lubricates the transmission and keeps it cool. These parts must be present and functioning property for the transmission to do its job. As they age, they become less effective. That's when it's time to replace the worn parts during a transmission rebuild. Gear RatiosTransmissions have grooved gears that spin in tandem to create torque needed to move the vehicle. The input and output gears are different sizes, each transmission has several gear ratios. Gear ratios change along with the vehicle's speed, and the way the gears work together make it happen. Transmissions also have selectors that let you reverse direction, park or leave the vehicle running while in neutral. Manual TransmissionsIf you have a vehicle with a manual transmission, you choose the gear by pressing the clutch and moving the gearshift into the appropriate position. Driving a vehicle with a manual transmission requires more skill than those with automatic transmissions, but it gives the driver more control over the speed of the vehicle. Many people who like working on their own cars prefer manual transmissions because they are less complex than automatic transmissions and easier to repair. Automatic TransmissionsAn automatic transmission changes the gear ratios on its own. The automatic transmission fluid inside the case provides pressure that moves the clutches and bands to select the appropriate gear. These transmissions are popular because most people find them easier to drive since they don't have to learn how to engage the clutch to change gears. They're more complex parts, though, which can be more costly to repair when something goes wrong.

How to Use Marvel Mystery Oil As a Motor Flush

How to Use Marvel Mystery Oil As a Motor Flush Marvel Mystery oil was founded in 1923 by Burt Pierce in Chicago Illinois. Many vehicles at that time had ongoing problems with clogged carburetor jets due to poor refining processes. Marvel Mystery oil became well known for cleaning these jets and increasing engine performance. Marvel Mystery oil can be used in the fuel tank and mixed with the engine oil but is not recommended as a one time engine flush. No more than 25 percent of your oil should be replaced with Mystery Oil. You can flush sludge out of your engine by regular use of the product with each oil change. Step 1Drive the car around the block to warm up the oil. Park the car on a level surface and set the parking brake. Crawl under the car and locate the drain plug on the oil pan. Place a container under the pan and remove the drain bolt with a socket wrench. Allow all fluid to drain and replace the plug. Remove the container and dispose of the old oil properly. Step 2Locate the oil filter. Place the filter wrench around the oil filter and loosen it by turning it counter clockwise. Spin the filter off using your hands being careful not to spill any of the oil inside of it. Properly dispose the old filter. Step 3Open one of the containers of oil and place a small amount of oil on your finger. Rub the oil over the rubber gasket on the new filter. Spin the filter clockwise on with your hands until you feel the gasket come in contact with the base. Tighten it an additional three quarters of a turn. Step 4Open the hood and remove the oil cap. Place a funnel in the opening and pour 1 quart of Marvel Mystery oil inside the engine. Add regular engine oil until the dip stick is at the "full" mark. Replace the cap. Drive the car for 3000 miles and change the oil again to flush out the engine sludge dislodged by the Mystery Oil.

How To Replace Oxygen Sensor

How To Replace Oxygen Sensor Easy step by step guide on how to replace an automotive engine exhaust oxygen sensor P0135, P0141, P0147, P0155, P0161 and P0167, this information pertains to most cars. Before beginning, park the car on level ground and allow to cool, block the tires to prevent the vehicle from moving. Lift the car with a floor jack in the manufacturers recommend position, use jack stands to secure the car. Oxygen sensors are located in the exhaust system so be careful of hot components. Make sure to wear protective clothing, gloves and eye wear. Step 1 - Before the oxygen sensor should be removed apply a light penetrating oil such as WD40 to help prevent thread and sensor damage. Step 2 - Some sensors are equipped with a heat shield that must be removed before the sensor removal, this is performed by removing any mounting bolts. Step 3 - Because most of us do not have a sensor removal tool, cut the sensor wires to ease the removal, a regular wrench will also work if the wires need to be left intact. Step 4 - By using a regular socket it minimizes potential damage to the sensor body and the threads, this technique helps avoid stripping the old sensor upon removal. Step 5 - Once the old sensor has been removed, inspect the threads for damage which is common with these sensors. Step 6 - Then, locate and disconnect the wiring connector, this step should be done before removing the sensor if the wiring is still attached. Step 7 - Its important that the wiring harness connectors are exactly the same, each sensor is unique to it's position and is located in the system by its connector configuration. (Note: some replacement sensors have a universal electrical connector that must be configured to the wiring of the old sensor.) Step 8 - Compare the new sensor to the old sensor to ensure a proper installation. Step 9 - Most new oxygen sensor manufacturer's include a small amount of anti-seize lubricant to help condition the mounting threads. Step 10 - After lubricating the threads and comparing the wiring harness connector the sensor is ready for installation. Step 11 - Use a small wire brush to help clean the threaded port to ensure a proper seal of the new sensor. Gently install the new oxygen sensor by hand while keeping the wiring and connector free from bends. Step 12 - Most sensor installations can be performed by using a normal 7/8 wrench, but when the sensor is obstructed by a heat shield etc. it helps to have the installation-removal tool. Step 13 - Gently tighten the sensor while keeping wiring free from damage, these sensors need to be fairly snug to avoid leakage. Step 14 - Once the sensor is tightened, reinstall any heat shields or bracing that had to be removed. Step 15 - After the heat shield has been reinstalled, mount the connector to it's holder and reattach the connector back onto the wiring harness. If the car has diagnostic trouble codes, they will need to be cleared.

What is a Drum brakes

What is s Drum Brakes A drum brake has a hollow drum that turns with the wheel. Its open back is covered by a stationary backplate on which there are two curved shoes carrying friction linings. The shoes are forced outwards by hydraulic pressure moving pistons in the brake's wheel cylinders , so pressing the linings against the inside of the drum to slow or stop it. Each brake shoe has a pivot at one end and a piston at the other. A leading shoe has the piston at the leading edge relative to the direction in which the drum turns. The rotation of the drum tends to pull the leading shoe firmly against it when it makes contact, improving the braking effect. Some drums have twin leading shoes, each with its own hydraulic cylinder; others have one leading and one trailing shoe - with the pivot at the front. This design allows the two shoes to be forced apart from each other by a single cylinder with a piston in each end. It is simpler but less powerful than the two-leading-shoe system, and is usually restricted to rear brakes. In either type, return springs pull the shoes back a short way when the brakes are released. Shoe travel is kept as short as possible by an adjuster. Older systems have manual adjusters that need to be turned from time to time as the friction linings wear. Later brakes have automatic adjustment by means of a ratchet. Drum brakes may fade if they are applied repeatedly within a short time - they heat up and lose their efficiency until they cool down again. Discs, with their more open construction, are much less prone to fading.

How to Troubleshoot A/C Problems in Freightliner Trucks

How to Troubleshoot A/C Problems in Freightliner Trucks Freightliner AC systems are much larger than most vehicle systems, and they use a larger condenser and an air compressor to cool the air. An evaporator is used on freightliner trucks as a heat exchange medium to move the heat generated by the system away from the air conditioning unit. The most common problem with a freightliner AC system is a leaking compressor. A specially trained mechanic should fix any problems with the AC system, but you can troubleshoot to verify that there is a problem. Step 1Turn the engine on and allow the truck to warm up to its normal operating temperature. The water temperature gauge needle should sit in the center of the upper and lower marks on the gauge. Because most freighliners use the engine's pulley system to power the air conditioner, the truck must be at normal operating temperature before the AC will work at its best. Step 2Turn the fan speed on low and turn the AC to the coldest setting. Freightliners use a simple dial on the HVAC control unit to control the setting of the AC system. On a freightliner, the sound of the compressor starting is unmistakable. You should hear a low "hum" followed immediately by the cooling fan turning on. If you do not hear the compressor, it may have failed or is leaking. Either of these two scenarios will require that the compressor be replaced. Turn the fan speed on the highest setting and set the AC to the coldest setting. If there is no cold air, the system needs to be recharged by a professional truck mechanic. The mechanic pumps refrigerant into the AC system so that the compressor has something to compress.

How to Replace the Spark Plugs in a Crossfire

How to Replace the Spark Plugs in a Crossfire The Chrysler Crossfire is a 2-door coupe sports car with a 3.2 liter in-line V6 engine with an overhead cam, three valves per cylinder and six spark plugs. There are three spark plugs on the right side of the engine and three spark plugs on the left side of the engine. Before you install the six new spark plugs in the Chrysler Crossfire, you will need to gap the spark plugs to the specifications of your Chrysler Crossfire model. Step 1Open the Crossfire's hood and locate the rubber caps connected to the ends of each spark plug. Disconnect the battery and then pull the rubber caps off the spark plugs. Step 2Connect the ratchet extension to the ratchet and connect the spark plug socket to the ratchet extension. Remove all of the spark plugs from the engine, using the ratchet. Step 3Gap all of the new spark plugs using the gaping tool. Gap the new spark plugs to the specification found in the owner's manual for your specific Crossfire model. Step 4Insert the tip of one of the spark plug into the spark plug socket. Insert the new spark plug into the spark plug housing and tighten the spark plug. Repeat this process for all of the other remaining spark plugs. Tighten all six spark plugs, using the torque wrench. Tighten the spark plugs to the torque specifications for your specific Crossfire model. Replace the rubber caps to the spark plugs, reconnect the battery and close the hood of the car.

When Is It Time to Replace Ball Joints?

When Is It Time to Replace Ball Joints? Worn ball joints allow too much movement in the suspension, so the driver may feel more vibrations — or hear squeaks or rattles on bumpy surfaces or when turning — caused by looseness in the suspension. Other signs of worn ball joints include uneven tire wear and steering that wanders instead of going straight. So when is it time to replace them? Well, because these symptoms also can apply to other suspension and steering issues, any or all of the above are good reason to have a thorough inspection conducted by a qualified mechanic before pointing the finger at the ball joints. Some ball joints have wear indicators, but others have to be checked by raising the car off the ground and seeing if the wheels allow excessive play. In addition, some ball joints have rubber dust covers that, if torn, can allow dirt and water in. That can damage the joint. Front ball joints connect the suspension control arms to the steering knuckles. Their ball shape allows the suspension to move up and down and the wheels to pivot when you turn the steering wheel. On vehicles that have rear ball joints, those act like hinges to allow the wheels to move up and down with the road surface. Vehicles with strut-type front suspensions have only lower ball joints, but double-wishbone styles have upper and lower ball joints. They often last more than 100,000 miles but can wear out earlier if driven frequently on rough roads, which puts more stress on the suspension. Load-bearing ball joints that carry the weight of the vehicle tend to wear out sooner than those that aren’t load-bearing. Ball joints used on most modern vehicles have grease sealed inside them (some require that grease be added periodically). The seals can leak with age, and once the grease leaks out, that will accelerate wear and eventually cause failure in an old ball joint. Don’t ignore warning signs of worn ball joints because eventually they can break. That can break a control arm or other suspension part, allowing the wheel to come loose. Ball-joint replacement is typically not listed on a vehicle’s maintenance schedule, but many manufacturers recommend they be inspected for wear at regular intervals, such as at oil changes.

How to Bleed the Brake Master Cylinder

How to Bleed the Brake Master Cylinder Besides the brake lines, you need to bleed the brake master cylinder when you remove it for repairs to ensure proper operation. Most manufacturers include bleeding instructions with their rebuilt or new units. But you can also use your hand-held vacuum pump. Use the next steps as an alternative bench bleeding method to ready the brake master cylinder before you install it. 1.Get your vacuum pump ready by connecting the pump's reservoir jar with a piece of tubing. Then attach a length of tubing of the appropriate size to the reservoir jar; you'll need to connect the other end of the tubing to the master cylinder's ports, in turn, during the bleeding procedure. Use tubing and adapters of the appropriate diameter that come with your kit. (Usually, manufacturers include a couple of plastic tubes and plugs with their units for bleeding as well.)2.Ask an assistant to hold the piece in place during the bleeding process with the push-rod end at a slightly higher angle than the opposite end. Or you can use a vise, but be careful not to damage the cylinder's body when securing it to the vise.3.Fill the cylinder reservoir with new brake fluid. Use the fluid type recommended by your vehicle manufacturer. During the bleeding procedure, don't let the brake fluid reach bottom to prevent air from entering the cylinder; otherwise, you'll need to start the bleeding process all over again.4.Unplug one of the cylinder ports and plug in the vacuum pump to it.5.Pump the cylinder until you see brake fluid free of bubbles entering the pump's reservoir jar.6.Disconnect the pump from the outlet port and tightly plug the port.7.Repeat the bleeding procedure in the other port(s).8.Now, with all the ports plugged, position the cylinder push-rod end at a slightly lower angle than the opposite end.9.Then, use a Phillips screwdriver or a punch to slide the cylinder push rod in and out about 1/8 inches. Repeat until you see no bubbles in the master cylinder reservoir.10.Raise the angle of the push-rod end again and bleed the cylinder again through the ports.11.Now you can install your new brake master cylinder.